In 1533 thirteen-year-old Catherine de Medici traveled to France to marry the future king, Henry II. She brought with her the arts and refinements of Italian culture including many horticultural projects such as Jardins des Tuileries in Paris. Under her reign the Italian Renaissance style was taken to new heights.
If you are a victim of allergies, then you know how annoying the runny nose, the red itchy eyes, the dry hacking cough, and the scratchy throat can be. With the coming of fall, ragweed, in particular, is a major allergy nightmare. But, there is some hope for allergy sufferers.
The allergic reaction ( basically a misguided immune system response ) is an inflammatory reaction of your body to some foreign substance ( particularly pollen ), certain animal dander, dusts, or molds. when it affects the membranes lining the eyes or nose, it produces hay fever ( allergic rhinitis.) When it affects the bronchial tubes, it produces asthma.
Wind-pollinated plants such as grasses, weeds, and trees that produce massive amounts of powdery, easily-inhaled pollen - with repeated exposure - produce some of the worst allergic reactions. Insect-pollinated flowers, vegetables, and even pine trees have such large and sticky pollen that they are not allergy problems.
Uplighting - the most dramatic form of lighting. Surface or direct burial fixtures are mounted in the ground and aimed upwards to illuminate trees, statues, walls, etc...
Moonlighting or downlighting - by placing fixtures in trees and casting the light down a natural light is created emphasizing paths, stairs, driveways, etc...
Path lighting - low level lighting for walkways, patios, and plant beds. Two types of lighting fixtures are used. The "spread" path light has the bulb hidden under the fixture top so it acts like a downlight. The "globe" or "glow" pathlight has a glass side or a globe that houses the bulb. beware, too many pathlights too close make your landscape look like an airport runway.
Grazing - with this lighting technique the texture of a surface-stone or brick wall or tree bark - can be highlighted. A fixture is placed a few inches from the surface and grazing the light to reveal contours and textures.
Shadowing - a technique that uses shadows to create interest. A fixture placed in front of a plant shown through it casts shadows onto the wall.
Silhouette or backlighting - when silhouetted against a wall or building, trees, shrubs or statues with interesting shapes can be dramatic accents. By placing a lighting fixture between a focal point and the wall the shape of the subject will be outlined. Landscape and facade lighting provides added security.
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